Below are the themes of my research. Specifically, I am examining the ways in which technology is entangled in education, and how Big Data/Big Tech (i.e., Google, Microsoft, Apple, Meta & Amazon) shapes teaching and learning at the K-12 level. My research is focused on public schools in Northern California. I have neither the patience nor the funding to expand this research to other regions. 

Keep in mind that this shift in educational technologies began well before the public debut of ChatGPT and other LLMs and AI. Historically, technology platforms have influenced both school policy and practice. Big Data simply amplified the reliance on educational technology. "Platform governance" creeped into education and began shaping education policy long before the COVID-19 pandemic, as noted in article Netflixing human capital development: personalized learning technology and the corporatization of K-12 education: 

"Advocates for personalized learning technology thus suggest that if digital platforms such as Google, Netflix, Amazon, and Facebook have transformed the way we conduct business, work, shop, communicate, travel, organize, and entertain one another, then it only makes sense to apply the operational logics of these platforms to educational systems in the name of progress and innovation." Roberts-Mahoney et al. (2016)

Big Data


Fawns (2019) Postdigital Design and Practice, & An Entangled Pedagogy: Looking Beyond  the Pedagogy—Technology Dichotomy (2022

Knox, J. (2019) What Does the “Postdigital” Mean for Education? Three Critical Perspectives on the Digital, with Implications for Educational Research and Practice


Making sense of the digital automation of education, (Selwyn et al., 2022). 

Educators’ understandings of digital classroom tools and datafication: perceptions from higher education faculty, (Szcyrek et al., 2024).


Making sense of the digital automation of education, (Selwyn et al., 2022). 

Platform Capitalism, by Nick Srnicek (2016) 

The age of surveillance capitalism: The fight for a human future at the new frontier of power, by Shoshana Zuboff (2019)


"Since the 1990s, around the time political and social scientists turned their attention to documenting and explaining the technological, economic and cultural effects of globalisation (Bauman; Beck; Giddens), the term governance has been rearticulated within/across various academic disciplines to make possible new kinds of analyses and interpretations of a wide range of political, social and economic changes. This has in turn giving rise to a wide range of compounds:  

technocratic governance, financial governance, transnational governance, soft governance, hard governance, network governance, democratic governance, corporate governance, education governance, school governance, educational governance, therapeutic governance, global governance, international governance, intrastructural governance, multi-level governance, pluri-scalar governance, hierarchical governance, heterarchical governance, market governance, neoliberal governance, digital governance, philanthropic governance, meta-governance, governance by numbers, public governance, private governance, good governance, effective governance, community governance, stakeholder governance, self-governance, European governance, neurogovernance, local governance, psychological governance, pedagogic governance, collegial governance, higher education governance, epistemic governance, metrics governance, competitive governance, cooperative governance, collaborative governance, precision governance, research governance, centralised governance, decentralised governance, curriculum governance, mediatised governance, platform governance, welfare governance, mediative governance, regulative governance, participative governance, indigenous governance, bureaucratic governance, affective governance, academic governance, modernised governance, therapeutic governance, palliative governance, epistemological governance, inquisitive governance, urban governance, rural governance, neighbourhood governance, dialogic governance, discursive governance, competition governance, algorithmic governance, university governance, policy governance, comparative governance, state governance, syncretic governance, regulatory governance, and modern governance 

"Governance is also used to represent or stand in for various complex processes and relations where it has been described as an ‘art’ (Pataki, 57), a ‘mode’ (Milner, Browes, and Murphy, 228), a ‘technology’ (Papanastasiou, 415), and a ‘discourse’ (Sifakakis et al., 37). Moreover, governance is typically imagined through various organisational and geographical typologies, such as:

–What is governance? Projects, objects and analytics in education (Wilkins & Mifsud, 2024) 

Algorithmic Literacies

Algorithmic Rights and Protections for Children

The MIT Press | DOI:

Publication date: 2023

"Essays on the challenges and risks of designing algorithms and platforms for children, with an emphasis on algorithmic justice, learning, and equity.

One in three Internet users worldwide is a child, and what children see and experience online is increasingly shaped by algorithms. Though children's rights and protections are at the center of debates on digital privacy, safety, and Internet governance, the dominant online platforms have not been constructed with the needs and interests of children in mind. The editors of this volume, Mizuko Ito, Remy Cross, Karthik Dinakar, and Candice Odgers, focus on understanding diverse children's evolving relationships with algorithms, digital data, and platforms and offer guidance on how stakeholders can shape these relationships in ways that support children's agency and protect them from harm. 

This book includes essays reporting original research on educational programs in AI relational robots and Scratch programming, on children's views on digital privacy and artificial intelligence, and on discourses around educational technologies. Shorter opinion pieces add the perspectives of an instructional designer, a social worker, and parents. The contributing social, behavioral, and computer scientists represent perspectives and contexts that span education, commercial tech platforms, and home settings. They analyze problems and offer solutions that elevate the voices and agency of parents and children. Their essays also build on recent research examining how social media, digital games, and learning technologies reflect and reinforce unequal childhoods."